Women in Gambling Throughout History

min read
Stack of colorful gambling chips on a casino table.
BetMGM Jun 17, 2024, 11:09 AM

Gambling has been a part of human society for millennia, so women playing games of chance is nothing new. However, historically, women often didn’t get an opportunity to play casino games in public places, or legally, until fairly recently.This didn’t stop many women from playing, of course, and some stood out, whether they were players or casino owners. Today, many women enjoy various online casino games, including games of skill and chance. Read on to learn more about some of the most famous women in the history of gambling.

Where Did It All Start?

Fortuna was the Roman goddess of gambling, so it makes sense that women would have participated in some kind of gambling activity in ancient society. Even then, though, women were only allowed to gamble during the festival of Bona Dea. Things changed when Emperor Nero came to power, and women were able to take part in more public activities.

In ancient Rome, games like tabula, a backgammon variant, were very popular. Other popular choices included board games played on tabulae lusoriae, including tic-tac-toe. Dice games were also common; archaeologists have discovered ancient reliefs depicting women and men enjoying this enduring pastime. 

As casino table games evolved, the rules became quite strict, and women weren’t allowed to play in public places. Nevertheless, many women chose to play in private, including the Faro Ladies. This group of women hosted private, faro card-playing parties in 18th-century England until they were fined and subjected to a smear campaign against them following George III’s “proclamation against vice” announcement.

As we’ll see in the next section, this didn’t deter women from playing for long, though.

Female Poker Players in the Wild West

Woman sitting at gambling table with chips and throwing two cards.

In the U.S., the mid-19th-century gold rush in California brought many people to the West Coast and surrounding areas, and gambling became a common pastime. While many of the typical Wild West saloons were full of men, it wasn’t illegal for women to play games, too — a fact that paved the way for notorious poker queens to emerge, including Poker Alice and Lottie Deno.

Poker Alice

When the topic of the gambling woman of poker history comes up in conversation, history buffs and poker enthusiasts are quick to think of “Poker Alice.” 

Alice Ivers Tubbs, better known as Alice Huckert or ‘Poker Alice,’ was one of the most famous figures of the American frontier. Born in 1851, she became a renowned professional gambler, bootlegger, and brothel owner who, because of her talent for providing sought-after commodities, was frequently invited to play poker with a diverse crowd of players ranging from outlaws to law enforcement officials. She was an extremely successful poker player and a fierce competitor, no matter who she went up against. Interestingly, she used to carry a .38 revolver to protect herself after winning and was renowned for being able to count cards and calculate the odds of a game very quickly. In 1910, she opened her own saloon, Poker’s Palace. When she died in 1930, she left behind a legacy of big wins and a reputation as someone who was not to be messed with.

Lottie Deno

Another famous female poker player from the Wild West is Lottie Deno (real name Charlotte Thompkins), who also gained notoriety for her poker skills while playing all over Texas. Many believe she set the stage for future female gamblers by being one of the first women to be recognized for her skills, having learned the game from her father.

Other Celebrated Women in the History of Gambling

The history of women and gambling runs far deeper than just the Wild West. Here are a couple more influential women who are still remembered today for their impact on the gambling world. 

Mayme Stocker

In the 1930s, women were not allowed to gamble. However — ironically — a woman was granted the first casino license issued under the modern regime of commercial gaming. In 1931, Mayme Stocker became the first lawful casino operator in Las Vegas. Living until the age of 97, Mayme spent the rest of her life in Las Vegas, active both socially and politically and becoming a respected member of her community. She passed away in 1972, leaving behind a legacy as a pioneering figure in the development of the Las Vegas casino scene. 

Eleanor Dumont

Born in 1829 in New Orleans, Eleanor Dumont defied societal norms by stepping into the male-dominated gambling world when she arrived in San Francisco at the age of 21. Her skill in ‘Lucky 21’ landed her a dealer job at the Bella Union casino, but suspicions of cheating led to her dismissal. Undaunted, she moved to Nevada, where she opened ‘Vingt-et-Un,’ a successful casino that attracted local miners due to her beauty and card-playing skills. She later partnered with gambler David Tobin to launch ‘Dumont’s Place’ in 1859. Eleanor defied conventions, and despite facing ups and downs, her legacy as ‘Madame Moustache’ endures as a trailblazer of her time.

Female Poker Players Today

Woman playing poker at a casino table with chips and cards face down on the table.

Being able to learn how to play poker at an online casino has changed the game, which is clear from the number of famous female gamblers who are honored in the world today, including Annie Duke, Vanessa Selbst, and Annette Obrestad, among many others.

Barbara Freer

Barbara was the first female poker player to enter a general WSOP (World Series of Poker) tournament and mix it up with the male players. It was a big deal at the time. Freer certainly loved the game and refused to limit herself to casinos with women-only tournaments. 

Annie Duke

Annie Duke is a well-known player who was one of the highest-winning regulars on the scene for a long time. She won a WSOP bracelet in 2004 and has since become a successful educator in behavioral-decision science.

Vanessa Selbst

Vanessa Selbst has left an enduring legacy in poker. As one of the most successful women in poker, she is the only woman in the world to have reached number one on the Global Poker Index. She broke the record for the highest tournament earnings for any woman when she won $1.4 million at an event in 2013.

Annette Obrestad

Annette Obrestad made a name for herself by being the youngest player to win a WSOP bracelet in 2007 at 18, after learning to play when she was 15.

Women-Owned Casinos

Woman's hands holding cards on a felt table, wearing a ring and pearl necklace bracelet.

In addition to women playing casino games and becoming exceptionally good at them, many also played an instrumental role in the development of the gambling industry – by owning and managing casinos. Here are a few of them:

Judy Bayley

Judy Bayley earned her title as the “First Lady of Gambling.” Together with her husband Warren Bayley, who owned a chain of California hotels, they opened the Hacienda hotel-casino in Nevada. This establishment was a significant part of the growth of the Las Vegas strip and was the first to bring games like Live Keno to the scene. After Warren died in 1964, Judy became the first woman to solely own and operate a hotel-casino.

Claudine Williams

Claudine Williams is another woman famous for owning and managing a casino. She was also the first woman to be immortalized in the American Gaming Association’s Gaming Hall of Fame in 1992 for her role in the evolution of the Las Vegas strip. In fact, she had already operated her own gambling club in Texas before she was 21.

Maria Gertrudis Barceló

Maria Gertrudis Barceló, or simply “La Tules,” owned and managed saloons in New Mexico in the early 19th century during the time of the US-Mexican War, along the Santa Fe Trail. Maria was a fiercely independent woman and retained all the rights to her own property and kept her maiden name. 

Although referred to as the ‘queen of sin’ by the more conservative, she was nonetheless a successful businesswoman and was reputed to be an excellent monte card game player. 

What Percentage of Gamblers Are Female?

The modern era of gambling has seen an impressive shift in gender representation. The traditional image of gambling as a male-dominated activity (while still prevalent) is fading. Today, women are staking their claim at the poker table with the same enthusiasm as their male counterparts. Surprisingly, nearly half of all casino visitors are female, accounting for 49% of the total crowd. This figure reflects a substantial and noteworthy female presence in the casino scene.

But it doesn’t stop there. The online gambling arena, which has become a significant player in the industry, is also witnessing a surge in female participation. In fact, 44% of all online gamblers are women, and 42% of sports bettors are women. These statistics are continuously growing and dispelling the stereotype that gambling is a male-centric pastime. 

More Women Are Getting Into Online Poker

As the number of online casinos increases, so does the number of players. Online poker is undoubtedly one of the top three games that women prefer playing online. Playing casino games like poker online can be a much more comfortable experience than going to a land-based casino that might be filled with only male players. It is comforting for women to play with other female players or online. Studies show that more than one-third of online poker players are women.

Play the Best Online Casino Games at BetMGM

There are many successful women in the gambling industry, not the least of which are poker players and business owners. If you’re feeling inspired to play and give gaming a try, too, why not them?

BetMGM hosts some of the best casino games in the world, including online slots and online poker. If you feel inspired by the stories above, register to play on BetMGM’s site and learn how to play some of the most famous games in history — if you aren’t a pro at them already.

Actress Vanessa Hudgens flipping casino chips next to the text "The King of Casinos"
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Our BetMGM editors and authors are casino experts with a wealth of knowledge of the online casino industry at all levels. Their coverage includes company news, game reviews, how-to instructional articles, strategy guides, and editorials showcasing BetMGM’s superior product and game library.

Our BetMGM editors and authors are casino experts with a wealth of knowledge of the online casino industry at all levels. Their coverage includes company news, game reviews, how-to instructional articles, strategy guides, and editorials showcasing BetMGM’s superior product and game library.